The development and direction of clinical medicine
A clinic is a branch of science engaged in diagnosing ailments and treating patients. After scientists suggested that the disease affects not only a single organ, but affects the general condition of the patient, the rapid development of this area of medicine began. This marked the beginning of the study of the symptoms of the disease and a detailed history.
medical use Sponsor
In the mid-19th century, the era of technological progress began. Advances in natural history have given an important step forward in the development of clinical medicine. The possibilities of the diagnostic direction have expanded, the first laboratory tests on biomaterials have been conducted.
And the more discoveries occurred in the field of biochemistry, the more accurate and more informative the test results became. Also during this period he began to actively use the physical methods of diagnosis – listening and percussion, which doctors use today.
The works of Professor Botkin brought many innovations in this field of medicine. At the therapeutic clinic, pathophysiological studies were carried out, which were not carried out before. The healing properties of various plants were also studied – Adonis, Lily of the valley and others, after which they began to be used in medical practice.
The second half of the 19th century was marked by the maintenance of new medical branches which studied:
diseases and treatment of young patients (pediatrics);
pregnancy and childbirth (obstetrics Sponsor);
pathology of the nervous system (neuropathology).
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the disciplines of surgical direction were highlighted. These were:
Oncology. The study of malignant and benign tumors.
Urology. This branch of medicine deals with diseases of the male genital organs and the urinary system.
- Traumatology. The study of traumatic effects on the human body, their effects and methods of treatment.
- Orthopedics. The study of diseases that cause deformities and disorders of the musculoskeletal system.
- Neurosurgery. Treatment of pathologies of the nervous system, by means of surgery.
This direction is one of the oldest in the history of world medicine. The knowledge used to treat patients has accumulated over thousands of years, but Europeans only started showing interest 60-70 years ago. Many methods of Chinese medicine are considered effective, so they are often introduced into their practice by Western doctors.
It is very interesting to diagnose the disease:
Inspection of the patient. The specialist takes into account not only the symptoms of the disease Sponsor, but also the general condition of the patient’s skin and nails. He examines the sclera of the eyes and tongue.
Auscultation. Chinese doctors evaluate the sound and rhythm of speech, as well as the patient’s breathing, which helps them to correctly identify the disorder.
Poll. The doctor carefully listens to all the patient’s complaints, determines her mental state, since this factor is no less important when prescribing therapy.
Pulse. Chinese doctors are able to distinguish 30 variations in the heart rhythm, which are characteristic of some ailments of the body.
Palpation. With this method, the doctor determines the function of the joints and muscle tissue, checks for swelling and the condition of the skin.
In Chinese medicine, dozens of different treatment methods are used, the main ones being:
- vacuum therapy;
- herbal medicine;
- qigong gymnastics;
- moksoterapiya and others.
- Medicine and Sport
Sports medicine has been assigned in a specific area of science Sponsor. Its main tasks are:
- medical supervision;
- emergency medical assistance for athletes;
- functional check;
- rehabilitate athletes and improve their professional performance;
- studying sports trauma, etc.